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All human diseases involve proteins, yet our current tools to characterize and quantify them are limited. To better elucidate proteins across space, time, and molecular composition, we provide provocative projections for technologies to meet the challenges that protein biology presents. With a broad perspective, we discuss grand opportunities to transition the science of proteomics into a more propulsive enterprise. Extrapolating recent trends, we offer potential futures for a next generation of disruptive approaches to define, quantify and visualize the multiple dimensions of the proteome, thereby transforming our understanding and interactions with human disease in the coming decade.

New Views of Old Proteins: Clarifying the Enigmatic Proteome